Koen Abts is Research Manager at the Centre for Sociological Research (CeSO) at KU Leuven, and responsible for the building of the Belgian Online Probability Panel – an infrastructure by a consortium of all Belgian universities. His research focuses on the effect of resentment and cultural, economic and political attitudes as well as on populism and populist radical right.
Peter Achterberg is a Professor of Sociology at Tilburg University. He is the former neighbour of Loek Halman at the S-building. Peter teaches in courses in cultural sociology, politics and society and is involved in several other courses. His research is focused on cultural, religious and political changes in the West, with a central focus on institutional trust.
Wil Arts is a Professor Emeritus of General and Theoretical Sociology at Tilburg University, the Netherlands, and former chair of the Theory Group of the European Values Study. With Loek Halman, he co-edited several books and co-authored quite a few articles on comparative social research and changing value patterns in Europe. He has also extensively published in the fields of economic and theoretical sociology and on topics such as industrial relations, social inequality, and the welfare state.
Josip Baloban studied philosophy at the Catholic Faculty of Theology, University of Zagreb, graduated in theology, and received a PhD in theology in Munich. He is a Full Professor and he taught at the Catholic Faculty of Theology, University of Zagreb from 1981 to 2019 where he also served three terms as Dean. He has participated in national and international scientific projects since 1997. From 1998 to 2019 he was EVS National Programme Director for Croatia, where he, together with several theologians, formed an interdisciplinary team of experts in methodology, sociology, psychology and political science. He is a member of Konferenz der deutschsprachigen Pastoraltheologen and Verein der mittel- und osteuropäischen Pastoraltheologen. He writes and publishes scientific papers in Croatian, German and occasionally in English.
Edurne Bartolomé Peral is an Associate Professor at the University of Deusto, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Department of International Relations and Humanities. She has been dedicating most part of her research and publications to the study of political culture, political values and attitudes in comparative perspective, as well as political support and trust, and the application of experimental models. She is currently National Programme Director for Spain of the European Values Study.
Arnoud-Jan Bijsterveld is a historian educated at the universities of Nijmegen (BA), Amsterdam (MA), and the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (PhD; 1993). For research and teaching, he was affiliated with universities and research institutes in Belgium, the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy. Since 1999, he has held the funded Chair for Regional History of Brabant at Tilburg University. In 2004, he was appointed Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology. Between 2012 and 2020, he taught the course on National and Regional Identities together with Loek Halman. His research and teaching revolve around (regional) history, heritage, memory, and identity.
Giovanni Borghesan is a junior researcher at the SWG research institute in Italy. He was part of the European Values Study Central team and assisted in the publication of the 5th EVS wave and of the longitudinal edition of the study. He took part in the SSHOC project cooperating in the construction of the multilingual ontology for religions.
Pierre Bréchon is a Professor Emeritus of Political Science at Sciences Po Grenoble (France), which he directed from 2002 to 2005, and he is a researcher at the PACTE social science laboratory (CNRS, Sciences Po Grenoble, University Grenoble-Alps). He works on the sociology of values and opinion, electoral and political behaviour, religious attitudes in France and Europe. With Frédéric Gonthier, he co-edited European Values. Trends and Divides Over Thirty Years (Brill, 2017). He is the National Programme Director of EVS for France and is a member of the EVS Theory Group.
Michael J. Breen is the former Dean of Arts at Mary Immaculate College (2008-2021) and currently Adjunct Professor in Sociology at the University of Limerick. He holds undergraduate degrees from University College Dublin and the University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome. He completed his M.S. and PhD at Syracuse University. He is Chair of the European Social Survey ERIC, a landmark project on the ESF Research Roadmap. Professor Breen is the National Programme Director for Ireland of the European Values Study and former Chair of the Governing Authority of the EVS.
Andries van den Broek is a researcher at the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP), and is a part-time folk punk musician. His fields of interest are high and low culture, the supposed generations and the balance between public and private responsibilities in pursuing the good life.
Paul Dekker is a Professor of Civil Society Studies at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University, and is semi-retired. His fields of interest are public opinion, social and political participation, and societal discontent. He is editor of Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies (Springer).
Caroline Dewilde is an Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University. Her main research interests concern the dynamics of inequality and poverty at different levels of analysis, from the individual life course to the welfare state, from a cross-national perspective. She has published widely in a range of (inter)national journals and books across the social sciences. In 2011, Caroline received an ERC Starting Grant. In the HOWCOME-project, the interplay during recent decades between trends in economic and social inequalities and changing housing regimes (housing markets, housing policies, housing wealth) was analysed. Her latest work focuses on post-crisis trends in (housing) wealth.
Javier Elzo Imaz is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Deusto where he taught and researched for 30 years. Since 1985, with the determined support of EVS cofounders Jan Kerkhof and Ruud de Moor, he introduced EVS studies in Deusto, first applied to youth studies, then to the entire population, both in the Basque Country and throughout Spain, as well as in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. He is the former National Programme Director for Spain of the European Values Study (2000-2006) and he has participated in all EVS studies in Spain since 1985.
Anastassios Emvalotis is a Professor in the field of “Methodology of Research in Educational Sciences” at the Department of Primary Education of University of Ioannina. His research interests are focused on topics related to: development and application of methods and techniques for educational research, use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in educational research, micro-sociological approaches to everyday school life, relationship between science, technology and society. He participates in international, European and national projects. He has published research papers in magazines, books and conference proceedings.
Yilmaz Esmer is a Professor of Political Science and International Relations at Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul. He has been closely associated with the European Values Study and the World Values Surveys since 1990, and currently serves as the Vice Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of WVS. He is also a member of the TRU research team based at Stellenbosch University (South Africa). His research interests include comparative values, political culture, democratisation, social change, voting behaviour and survey methodology. Most recently, he has completed a collaborative research project with Harvard University’s T. F. Chan School of Public Health on the impact of family planning programs in Istanbul.
Georgy Fotev is a Professor Emeritus at the New Bulgarian University. He is the author of many books and articles in the field of sociology. Among his main books are: Values vs. Disorder, The Other Ethnos, Spheres of Values, European Values in Today’s Bulgarian Society (editor), European Values: The New Constellation (editor), Human Uncertainty, Meaning and Understanding, Sociology as Rigorous Science and others. He is the head of the Centre for the Study of European Values at the New Bulgarian University and is the National Programme Director for the EVS.
Morten Frederiksen is a Professor at the Department of Sociology and Social Work at Aalborg University. Morten does comparative research on values and culture in the context of welfare, social policy and social work. Currently he is heading the research project ‘Just Worlds’, which investigate cultural notions of social justice in China, USA and Scandinavia. Morten has published extensively on these topics in journal such as Current Sociology, British Journal of Sociology, VOLUNTAS, and Public Management Review. Morten is National Programme Director of the European Values Study in Denmark.
Aikaterini Gari is a Professor of Social Psychology at the Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA). She has been appointed National Programme Director for Greece of the European Value Study (2002-today) and Correspondence Member for Greece of the European Council for High Ability (2002-today). She has been elected member of the Executive Council (2014-2018) of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP) and Director of the Laboratory for Creativity Development of the NKUA (2017- today). She has published more than 60 papers in peer reviewed journals, books and congress proceedings in the topics of values and attitudes, social axioms, community well-being, contemporary families, children and adolescents of high ability and the gifted identification at school.
John Gelissen is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Methodology and Statistics at Tilburg University, The Netherlands. His research field is sociology and social science research methods. He specializes in the sociological and methodological study of (cross-national) differences in public opinion and behaviour in welfare, environmental issues, leisure, and quality of life.
Erwin Gielens is a PhD student at the Sociology department of Tilburg University. His research project investigates the public legitimacy of Universal Basic Income policy, using a mixed-methods approach. His broader research interests cover the legitimacy and development of the welfare state. Before becoming a junior colleague of Loek at the Department of Sociology, Erwin was a student in the Bachelor of Sociology and the Research Master Social and Behavioural Sciences at Tilburg University.
Peter Gundelach is a Professor Emeritus at the Department of Sociology at the University of Copenhagen. He has studied social movement in contemporary and historical perspectives, and most recently analysed the Danish refugee solidarity movement as well as a conservative religious movement. From 1997 to 2015, Peter was the Danish National Programme Director in the European Values Studies. Peter has published several articles, monographs and edited volumes on values changes and in particular on national identities. In cooperation with other colleagues, he also has published on young people consumption of alcohol and on attitudes to climate change. Further, Peter has published a number of articles, textbooks and edited volumes on survey methodology.
Katya Ivanova is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University. Her research interests are in the field of family sociology, focusing on understanding what changing patterns in demographic behaviours (partnership formation/dissolution, fertility transitions) mean for social cohesion, individual well-being, and general perceptions of the meaning of family. She is an Associate Editor of European Societies and on the editorial board of Journal of Marriage and Family. Her work has been published in American Sociological Review, Journal of Marriage and Family and European Sociological Review.
Gudbjorg Andrea Jonsdottir is Director of the Social Science Research Institute at the University of Iceland. Prior to that she was Research Director with Gallup in Iceland. Her main research areas are methodology and public opinion, in particular context and order effects in social surveys, wording of questions, mode effects and response rate. She is the National Programme Director of the EVS in Iceland and a member of the Executive Committee of EVS.
Dominique Joye is a Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Lausanne and has a strong interest in research on inequalities, social networks, and social resources, while underlining the strong relation between data production and data analysis. Past director of the Swiss data archive (1999-2006) and still collaborating with Swiss Centre of Expertise in the Social Sciences (FORS), he was involved by representing Switzerland in international surveys like the European Social Survey (National Coordinator from 2002 to 2008), the European Value Survey (Swiss National Programme Director in 2007) and International Social Survey Programme (Swiss delegate since 2000). Elected at a time in the methodological board of these three international programs, he was chairing the Methodological Committee of the ISSP.
Dénes Kiss is a Lecturer at the Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj, with research activity in the field of sociology of religion, rural sociology and sociology of the non-governmental sector. In the field of sociology of religion his research focuses on the dynamics of the Romanian religious landscape, paying special attention to the emergence of new religious communities, and the religious characteristics of ethnic minorities. He is author of the book “That’s all we have”. Religion and Churches in the PostcommunistTransylvania, published in Hungarian. Between 2019-2021 he was research director of the Institute of Religious Studies in Cluj.
Vera Lomazzi is an Assistant Professor in Sociology at the Department of Human and Social Sciences at the University of Bergamo. She is Secretary of the Executive Committee of the European Values Study and board member of the European Survey Research Association. Her substantive research mainly focuses on social change and the cross-cultural study of gender equality. She has a specific interest in the quality of the instruments adopted by large cross-sectional survey programs and on their measurement equivalence. Her work has been published in highly ranked journals such as Social Science Research, Survey Research Methods, Cross-cultural Research, European Sociological Review, and Quality & Quantity.
Ruud Luijkx is the Chair of the Executive Committee and the Methodology Group of the European Values Study; Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University; Visiting Professor at the Department of Sociology and Social Research at Trento University; Associate Member of Nuffield College in Oxford; member of the steering committee of the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence of European Values at Tilburg University. His research interests are social inequality and mobility, and the methodology of survey research. He published among others in the American Journal of Sociology, the European Sociological Review, European Societies, Political Psychology, Socio-Economic Review, Social Science Research, and Research in Social Stratification and Mobility.
Ross Macmillan is Chair in Sociology and Head of Department at the University of Limerick. His research interests include the social-psychological consequences, the role of values in macro-sociology, the impact of female political empowerment on population health, and the socio-political consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. Recent publications appear in Social Forces, Demography, Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, and Population Studies.
Angelica M. Maineri is Data Manager at the Open Data Infrastructure for Social Science and Economic Innovation (ODISSEI) hosted at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. She spent five years as assistant of the Methodology Group of the European Values Study and member of the EVS Operational and Planning Group for the EVS 2017 survey, while pursuing a PhD at the Sociology Department at Tilburg University.
Bart Meuleman is a Professor of Sociology at the Centre for Sociological Research (CeSO) at KU Leuven. His research focuses on cross-national comparisons of value and attitude patterns, such as ethnic prejudice, egalitarianism, and support for the welfare state. He is Belgian National Coordinator for the European Social Survey and member of the Methodology Group of the European Values Study.
Konstantin Minoski holds a PhD in Sociological Sciences and is a Full Professor at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, at the Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Sociology. He is teaching courses on undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral studies in the fields of sociology of ethnic groups, sociological theories, and sociology of sports. His research interest is focused on interethnic relations, ethnic distance, ethnopolitical mobilisation, social changes in Macedonian society, youth sport and leisure, etc. His research results are presented, as author or co-author, on many national and international conferences, and symposia, and published in the conference proceedings, or scientific journals. He is a member of Macedonian national EVS team.
Christof Van Mol is an Assistant Professor in Sociology at Tilburg University. He teaches general sociological courses as well as specialized courses on international migration. His research mainly focuses on international migration, the internationalisation of higher education, and research methodologies. He published widely on these issues in journals like Higher Education, the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Population, Space and Place, and Social Science Computer Review. His work has received several academic awards, including the 2016 Best Book Award in Sociology of Migration of the International Sociological Association and the 2020 ASHE CIHE Award for Significant Research on International Higher Education.
Guy Moors is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Methodology and Statistics at Tilburg University. He holds a PhD from the Free University of Brussels. His publications are in the field of social demography, survey methodology, cross-cultural comparative research, applied latent class analysis, and research on attitudes and values.
Ruud Muffels is an economist and a Professor Emeritus of labour market and social security. He held a chair at the Department of Sociology and at Tranzo, the scientific centre for care and welbeing at Tilburg University where he is a guest professor. He is also a research fellow at IZA in Bonn and a Visiting Professor at the University of Leuven. His research focuses on issues such as income inequality, work careers, subjective well-being, labour market institutions and welfare states’ performance. He is currently working on a reissue of the 1999 Real Worlds-book and on a volume on Basic and Participation Income.
Quita Muis is a PhD researcher at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University, connected to the European Values Study and the university’s Impact Programme. For her dissertation, she investigates polarisation, particularly between educational groups. Her broader research interest includes (changes in) public opinion, polarisation, and identity.
Wim van Oorschot is a Professor Emeritus of Social Policy at KU Leuven. His main research interest regards popular welfare attitudes as the cultural context of welfare provision in European countries. For more than 20 years he has been a close colleague of Loek at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University. He cooperated with him in developing the ‘solidarity items’ of the European Values Study and in analysing people’s perceptions of the causes of poverty.
Penny Panagiotopoulou is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Education and Social Work at the University of Patras, where she has been since 2009. She received her PhD degree in psychology with an emphasis on cross cultural perspective of the self from the University of Athens. Her research interests lie in the broad areas of values, well-being, norms and meta-norms. Much of her work has been on social identity, social axioms, self-perception, social beliefs, and social knowledge of primary education students. She has publications in peer reviewed journals and chapter contributions in scientific books.
Antoanela Petkovska is a Full Professor at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, at the Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Sociology. Her professional interests include sociology of culture, sociology of art, sociology of youth, cultural anthropology, intercultural communication, gender and society, and European civilisation. Her major books and publications are: Sociology of Macedonian Fine Arts, Sociological Aspects of Monumental Art in Macedonia after the Liberation, Essays in Sociology of Culture, The social function of art in contemporary Macedonian society, Some Tendencies of Contemporary Cultural Politics in the Republic of Macedonia, Innovation in the Humanistic and in the Social Sciences, and more. She is a member and the actual National Programme Director of EVS Macedonia.
Ioana Pop is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University. She has an interdisciplinary theoretical focus, combining a comparative perspective with a life course perspective, as well as quantitative and qualitative methodology. Her research interests regard the social causes of disease, with a particular interest in mental health and wellbeing. She is currently working on topics such as detraditionalisation and mental health and mental health care utilisation, the crisis of meaning in cross-country perspective, as well as the psychedelic renaissance.
Mihajlo Popovski is a Full Professor in Social Psychology at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Psychology. The focus of his scientific interest regard several social-psychological phenomena, including attitudes, values, ethnic stereotypes, attributions, prosocial behaviour, conflicts and post-traumatic stress. He has presented the results of the research of these phenomena in many papers, prepared independently or in co-authorship and published in scientific journals and collections of domestic and international scientific-professional gatherings. He is member of Macedonia national EVS research team since 2006.
Alice Ramos holds a PhD in Sociology and is a Research Fellow at the University of Lisbon. Her research interests include social values, prejudice and discrimination, attitudes towards immigration and the methodology of cross-national studies. She is National Coordinator of the European Social Survey-ERIC, Project Director and Vice-chair of the Methodological Group of the European Values Study, Principal Investigator of CLAVE – The development of values on children and early adolescents (project funded by the Science National Foundation) and Representative of Portugal in the ESS-SUSTAIN-2 (H2020-INFRADEV-2019-2). She coordinates the line of Data Production of the infrastructure PASSDA (Production and Archive of Social Science Data).
Tim Reeskens is an Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University, and he succeeded Loek Halman as the National Programme Director of the European Values Study Netherlands. Tim holds the Jean Monnet Chair on Identities and Cohesion in a Changing European Union, and he coordinates the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence of European Values at Tilburg University. Together with Loek Halman, Inge Sieben and Marga van Zundert, he published the Atlas of European Values: Change and Continuity in Turbulent Times (Open Press TiU). His research appeared in European Sociological Review, European Societies, Journal of European Social Policy, and others.
Ole Preben Riis is a Professor Emeritus of Sociology of Religion at University of Agder (Norway), and on general sociology at Aalborg University (Denmark). He is a participant in several international survey studies, including the European Values Study and Religious and Moral Pluralism. His list of publications includes findings from the European Values Study, textbooks on sociology, practical methods, and mixed methods. Ole Riis is presently attached to the SocMap group at Aalborg University, which focuses on the social impact of locations.
Femke Roosma is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University. Her research focusses on (the legitimacy of ) social policies and welfare states. She studies multiple dimensions of support for the welfare state, with a focus on perceived abuse and underuse of welfare, support for welfare obligations and sanctioning and tax attitudes. Her studies also focus on (support for) Universal Basic Income. In addition, she conducts research in the related field of deservingness theory, which aims to answer the question which social target groups are seen as deserving of benefits, and for what reasons.
Gergely Rosta is an Associate Professor in Sociology at the Pázmány Péter Catholic University in Budapest. His main field of research is sociology of religion, especially religious change in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as youth and religion. He is co-author with Detlef Pollack of the monograph Religion and Modernity published in 2017 by Oxford University Press. Gergely is the Hungarian National Programme Director of the European Values Study and board member of the International Society for the Sociology of Religion (ISSR).
Inga Run Saemundsdottir is a project manager at the Social Science Research Institute at the University of Iceland. Her main research areas are environmental issues and health and wellbeing.
Inge Sieben is an Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology, Tilburg University. Her research interests are comparative research on religion, morality and family values, and social stratification research, particularly inequalities in educational opportunities. She is co-author of the Atlas of European Values and coordinator of the Erasmus+ KA201 project EVALUE, in which EVS data are used to develop teaching materials for secondary education. She published her work in Work, Employment and Society, European Sociological Review, Acta Sociologica, and European Societies.
Maria Silvestre Cabrera is a Professor in the Social and Human Sciences Faculty of University of Deusto (Bilbao, Spain). Maria is the Principle Researcher of DeustoSocialValues Research Team that represents Spain in the EVS. She is the former National Programme Director for Spain of the European Values Study (2006-2020). She was Dean of the Political Science and Sociology Faculty (2004-2009), President of the Basque Association of Sociology (AVSP) and Vice-President of the Spanish Federation of Sociology (FES). Maria was the Director of the Basque Institute of Woman - Emakunde of the Basque Government (2009-2012). Currently, Maria coordinates the H2020 Project Gearing-Roles.
Ingrid Storm is a Birmingham Fellow in the Department of Social Policy, Sociology and Criminology at the University of Birmingham. Her main research interests are in religious change and the impact of religion on social behaviour. She currently works on a large EU-funded project on inequality and youth radicalisation, and previously completed a three-year British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship researching the relationship between financial insecurity and religion in Europe. Ingrid has a PhD from the University of Manchester, an MSc in Social Research Methods and Statistics from the University of Manchester and an MA in Anthropology from Binghamton University (USA).
Ilo Trajkovski is a Full professor at Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Sociology, Skopje. He is teaching and publishing in the areas of sociology of politics, citizenship, civil society, human rights and contemporary sociological theory. As a visiting professor and researcher, he has done study visits to sociological institutions in the USA (ASU in Tempe and the New School for Social Research in New York), the UK (LSE), Bulgaria (St. Clement of Ohrid University), Poland (Jagiellonian University), and France (Université de Strasbourg). He was the first National Programme Director of EVS Macedonia, and member of the national research team since 2006.
Gudny Bergthora Tryggvadottir is a project manager at the Social Science Research Institute at the University of Iceland. Her main research areas are related to welfare and health, evaluation of intervention programmes in nursing, and assessment of public services to people with disabilities.
Jorge Vala holds a PhD in Social Psychology from the University of Louvain (1984). He was a senior researcher at the Institute of Social Sciences (ICS)/ULisboa, institution where he is currently Emeritus Researcher. His research focus on socio-cognitive processes. His present projects articulate these processes with the study of racism and prejudice, migration issues, political attitudes and social justice. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the European Association of Social Psychology and the National Coordinator for the ESS, the EVS, and the ISSP. He was also Director of the Portuguese Infrastructure PASSDA. He served as Director of the ICS-UIisboa. Jorge Vala received the J.P. Codol Award from the European Association of Social Psychology.
David Voas is a Professor at University College London, where he led the UCL Social Research Institute until 2020. He is a demographer and sociologist of religion. David was the European Values Study National Programme Director for Great Britain from 2008 to 2020 and served on the EVS Executive Committee for most of that period. He is co-director of British Religion in Numbers (www.brin.ac.uk) and a member of the editorial boards of the British Journal of Sociology and the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.
Bogdan Voicu is a Research Professor at the Romanian Academy (Research Institute for Quality of Life) and a Professor of Sociology at Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu. He is part of the Romanian Group for studying Social Values (RomanianValues.ro) and President of the Romanian Quantitative Studies Association. Bogdan’s main area of research is social change at both the individual- and the macro-level, with a current focus on how international migration changes social values, behaviours of civic participation, and life satisfaction.
Susanne Wallman Lundåsen is an Associate Professor of Political Science at the Centre for Local Government Studies at Linköping University. Susanne has been the National Programme Director for EVS Sweden during 2009-2020. Her research focuses on social trust, civic engagement and volunteering. Her research has appeared in journals such as Governance, Local Government Studies., Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, and others.
Christof Wolf is President of GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, and Professor of Sociology at Mannheim University. His substance-related research interests include aspects of social stratification, social determinants of health, and social networks. His methodological research focusses mainly on survey methods. He was responsible for the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS, from 2008 to 2015), he was member of the national coordination team for the German part of the European Social Survey (2015 to 2019), and member of the Executive Committee of the European Values Study (2010 to 2020). He has been member of the German team of the International Social Survey Programme (since 2008) and has served as ISSP’s Secretary (2015 to 2021).